EFFECTS
Both left and right DLPFC tDCS, but not sham, reduced smoking craving after cue-exposition.

SIDE EFFECTS
The frequency of adverse effects (drowsiness, itching, headache, scalp burning, problems, mood changes, tingling) was not different across the three conditions of treatment.

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EFFECTS
Craving for viewed foods was reduced by anode right/cathode left tDCS. Compared with sham stimulation, subjects fixated food-related pictures less frequently after anode right/cathode left tDCS and consumed less food after both active stimulation conditions.

SIDE EFFECTS
Few mild adverse events, but with the same frequency, in the active and sham tDCS groups.

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EFFECTS
tDCS is able to temporarily reduce food cravings and improve the self-reported ability to resist foods.

SIDE EFFECTS
None reported.

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EFFECTS
Both anodal left/cathodal right and anodal
right/cathodal left decreased alcohol craving compared to sham stimulation. Following treatment,
craving could not be further increased by alcohol cues.

SIDE EFFECTS
The frequency of adverse effects (discomfort, headache, mood changes, and itching) was not different across the three conditions of treatment.

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RISULTATI RIPORTATI NELLA LETTERATURA SCIENTIFICA

La dipendenza può essere definita come una “irresistibile spinta al consumo” e può essere associata all’eccesso di cibo, alcohol, fumo o all’abuso di sostanze. Si ipotizza che le dipendenze di cibo o di sostanze abbiano in comune processi neurobiologici. Studi basati sull’utilizzo di tecniche di neuroimaging funzionale hanno rilevato che specifiche aree cerebrali, inclusa la zona DLPFC, siano associabili alla dipendenza. Perciò la corteccia prefrontale è un potenziale target per l’inibizione del disturbo mediante la stimolazione a corrente continua (tDCS). Negli utlimi anni sono stati condotti degli studi per valutare l’effetto della tDCS nel caso di dipendenza da cibo, fumo e alcohol. In tutti e tre i casi la stimolazione dell’area DLPFC ha indotto una riduzione della dipendenza.

Goldman RL, Borckardt JJ, Frohman HA, O’Neil PM, Madan A, Campbell LK, Budak A, George MS. Prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) temporarily reduces food cravings and increases the self-reported ability to resist food in adults with frequent food craving. Appetite 2011;56(3):741-6. Epub 2011 Feb 23.

 

PROTOCOLLI USATI NELLA LETTERATURA SCIENTIFICA

La tabella seguente riassume alcuni protocolli utilizzati nella letteratura scientifica. I protocolli sono classificati e ordinati in ordine decrescente secondo il numero di soggetti sottoposti alla tDCS. Per rappresentare tale classificazione è stata utilizzata una legenda a colori.

Legenda

  1 ≤ numero di soggetti trattati ≤ 10
  11 ≤ numero di soggetti trattati ≤ 20
numero di soggetti trattati ≥ 21


REFERENCE


STIMULATION ELECTRODE POSITION


REFERENCE ELECTRODE POSITION


POLARITY


ELECTRODE AREA
(cm2)


INTENSITY (mA)


CURRENT DENSITY (mA/cm2)


DURATION (min)


EFFECTS AND SIDE EFFECTS


HEALTHY SUBJECTS OR PATIENTS


NUMBER OF SUBJECTS

Fregni et al (2008 b)

Left or right DLPFC

Homologue area. Cathodal electrode of
100 cm2

A/S

35 cm2

2

0.057

20 min




Healthy smoking subjects

24

Fregni et al (2008 a)

Left or right DLPFC

Left or Right DLPFC

A/C/S

35 cm2

2

0.057

20 min




Healthy subjects who reported frequent food cravings

23

Goldmanet al.(2011)

Anode over the right prefrontal cortex

Cathode over the left prefrontal cortex

A/S

25 cm2

2

0.08

20 min




Healthy individuals (Body Mass Index under 40) who reported frequent food cravings

19

Boggio et al (2008)

Left or right DLPFC

Left or Right DLPFC

A/C/S

35 cm2

2

0.057

20 min




Subjects satisfying the diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence
(DSM-IV)

13

Craving reference:

Boggio PS, Sultani N, Fecteau S, et al. Prefrontal cortex modulation using transcranial DC stimulation reduces alcohol craving: a double-blind, sham-controlled study. Drug Alcohol Depend 2008;92:55-60.

Fregni F, Orsati F, Pedrosa W, et al. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex modulates the desire for specific foods. Appetite 2008;51:34-41. (a)

Fregni F, Liguori P, Fecteau S, et al. Cortical stimulation of the prefrontal cortex with transcranial direct current stimulation reduces cue-provoked smoking craving: a randomized, sham-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry 2008;69:32-40. (b)

Goldman RL, Borckardt JJ, Frohman HA, O’Neil PM, Madan A, Campbell LK, Budak A, George MS. Prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation  (tDCS) temporarily reduces food cravings and increases the self-reported ability to resist food in adults with frequent food craving. Appetite 2011;56(3):741-6. Epub 2011 Feb 23.

 

* Questa raccolta bibliografica include una selezione di pubblicazioni estratta da PubMed. L’inclusione di questi lavori nella presente raccolta non implica in alcun modo l’approvazione da parte di Newronika dei protocolli o dei risultati riportati in questi lavori.

** last issued: December 2015.


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